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Эстонская бомба — ядерный щит СССР
the so-called black slate, which was mined in the Estonian town of
Sillamae, the Soviet Union made the very first atomic bomb. Until recently, this information was completely closed and completely secret.
The Invisible City
In Estonia - Europe's largest reserves of uranium, which is Dictyonema shale. On the territory of the neighboring country of just Nemer - about 60 billion tons.
The first Soviet uranium found near the borough of Sillamae on the Gulf of Finland, which during the Cold War was an incredibly important discovery. No wonder that the July 27, 1946, Stalin decided to build a plant for the extraction of shale uranium from local raw materials. It is clear that near the construction site there has been great working village.
Place Sillamae become invisible, evaporated on the cards. The village was not marked anywhere, for its designation used various code names, which are also from time to time change. For example, to send a letter here, it was necessary to specify "Moscow-400", then - "Leningrad-1", then - "Narva-1." The plant was built in record time, for the most severe areas close to the workers toiled prisoners and German prisoners of war criminals.
Secret object was called "factory colors" (and I want to add - radioactive) and "Plant N22». In Sillamae in the years 1946-49 was attended by representatives of the Moscow and Leningrad intelligentsia, every second resident of the village was the highest, if not academic education. The irony is that the status of the city was obtained secretly Sillamae - June 29, 1957.
The unique Soviet-Stalinist architecture Sillamae, which in Soviet times, did not spare neither money nor brains, really worth seeing: it is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the north-east of Estonia. Not by chance in 2000 under the protection of the Estonian government had taken many of the objects, including local House of Culture and cinema "Rodina".
The famous poetess Rimma Kazakova, which struck this "city of the future" in 1988, he has dedicated a poem in which he called "a fairy tale where she has long wanted to fly, but could not find on a map." In Sillamae was a special provision in the stores always had quality products and goods; well, ordinary locals first appeared in the USSR televisions, washing machines and other household appliances.
In 1928 Sillamae was quickly transformed into an industrial oasis - in the short term, were built processing plant oil shale power plant and a small port. It has become urgent because in Estonia in 1916 was found great wealth - natural slates. Due to the extraction of combustible rock Estonia today is completely (or rather, 98 percent), self-sufficient in electricity and sell the excess to Finland and to us in Latvia. Mo-lod-particles!
It is not slow Estonians very rational and economic use of the fact that they have, according to the present time, Europe's largest deposits of oil shale and rock phosphate, proven reserves are estimated at 3.8 billion tons.
Shales deposited in the north-east of Estonia - in the region of Ida-Viru County. Although the European Union has repeatedly zhuril our neighbors for their mines, quarries and advised to stop this dirty business. But why? Oil shale - a collection of solid fossil of the prehistoric creatures caustobiolites that the processing yield a significant amount of resin, similar in composition ... to oil. This gasoline and other flammable materials! Neighbors and do not think to turn off processing of oil shale: why would they cut the branch on which it sits their economy?
One old mine called "Eclipse", although recently froze, as produced by breed gone too deep into the earth, and therefore its production has become too expensive. But! Mine field called "Eclipse" will remain open, and remain in it reserves - about eight million metric tonnes of oil shale - will be produced in the future.
But private concern Viru Keemia Grupp January 31 this year opened a new mine - Ojamaa. Which cost the company 120 million euros. Naturally, the investments made in the calculation of the profit.
Estonian experts have no doubt that in slantsedobychi, like oil shale and chemistry, there are prospects. Wait and see.
Museum-mine in Kohtla-Nõmme - the ability to go down into the bowels of the earth!
The museum is organized in a former slate mine "Kohtla", which was closed in the 1990s. The excursion takes place, accompanied by a guide - a former miner. You descend into the mine, a ride on the former mining structure (1.2 km), and to complete an extreme can even order lunch in a cafe underground (mining Lunch: soup, bun, a drink - 3.50 euros).
You, as a real miner, get clothing - a jacket and a protective helmet - and more! You will have the opportunity to work with a jackhammer, ride on an underground train in trolleys ...
You can visit the complex sorting and enrichment, buy a souvenir - ancient fossils.
Address: Kohtla-Nõmme, ul. Jaama 1.
Help - tel.: +372 3321441, +372 3324017.
Price question: adults - 10 euros, pupils and students - 6 euros.
Details: www.kaevanduspark.ee / rus.
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